The Complete Guide To CBD Oil
The CBD industry moves very fast which can make it difficult for consumers to stay current. Consider this a CBD oil cheat sheet for 2019.
The Complete Guide to CBD Oil
Cannabidiol (CBD) is compound produced by the cannabis plant and its popularity is growing at an incredible rate. CBD companies are popping up nationwide and they are creating some very unique and exciting products – from tinctures and drops to balms, candy, and just about every type of cosmetic you can think of. It’s just a matter of time before CBD is totally mainstream and as common as sugar or salt, only a LOT healthier.
The industry is growing so fast that it has been hard for mainstream consumers to stay current. Most companies are trying their best to provide honest and accurate data on their products but there’s still a lot of misinformation about CBD oil and CBD products posted online.
This guide will help you understand everything you need to know about CBD and CBD oil including how it’s made, how much you should use, how much CBD oil costs, and much more.
Per The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act I am required to inform you that CBD and CBD products have not been approved by any FDA-sanctioned research as treatment for any medical condition. The information provided in this guide is not intended to prevent, diagnose, or cure any disease.
This guide is to be used for educational purposes regarding CBD oil and does not provide medical advice. Always talk with your doctor before using CBD for any reason.
How To Use This Guide
There are 4 different sections:
- What is CBD?
- How is CBD Oil Made?
- How Does CBD Oil Work?
- CBD Oil Prices
- CBD Dosing
Section 1: We will cover all the basics about CBD oil and answer some of the most commonly asked questions.
Section 2: We’ll go over the CBD production process including information on how different types of CBD extracts like isolate and distillate are made.
Section 3: We will discuss the active ingredients in CBD oil and how they react with different receptors in the body.
Section 4: We’ll talk about CBD prices and discuss how much you should be paying.
Section 5: CBD dosing and how much you should take every day.
Section 1 – What is CBD and CBD Oil?
In section 1 we will discuss what CBD oil is and answer some frequently asked questions on the topic of CBD.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a molecule that belongs to a group of natural occurring compounds known as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are active compounds produced by both cannabis plants and the human body. CBD is found in the flowers, leaves, and stems of different strains of cannabis plants. Today, people worldwide are using CBD for a number of therapeutic purposes with positive results.
- Phytocannabinoids: Plant produced cannabinoids
- Endocannabinoids: Cannabinoids that are produced by the human body
CBD Oil is the natural essential oil that is extracted from the flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant using a number of different techniques. CBD oil contains a variety of compounds including cannabinoids and terpenes (among others) which have been proven to be non-toxic and very beneficial.
What Are Terpenes?
Terpenes are compounds produced by most plants including cannabis plants. Terpenes are incredibly fragrant and can be extracted in oil form. Terpenes can be found in a variety of food and cosmetic products and have been recognized as safe for human consumption by the Food and Drug Administration.
Cannabis plants produce the highest amounts of terpenes in their female flowers.
Different terpene molecules look very similar with each having it’s own very unique scent and flavor. Different variations of terpenes are what give different strains of cannabis their smell and flavor.
CBD products are formulated differently and some contain other active and non-active ingredients like fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and many other beneficial compounds.
Marijuana vs. Hemp
Cannabis = Marijuana AND Hemp.
That’s right, the term cannabis refers to both marijuana and hemp plants. That being said, marijuana and hemp are not the same. Marijuana gets you high, hemp does not.
Cannabis has been used for hundreds of years and different strains have been bred for different purposes. Strains that produce long fibrous stalks (hemp) were used for making products like paper, clothing, and rope. Strains that were shorter and had more resinous flowers (marijuana) were grown for medical and recreational purposes.
Both marijuana and hemp produce the compounds THC and CBD. The main difference is the amount of each compound they produce.
The federal government defines marijuana as any cannabis that contains more than 0.3% THC.
Marijuana is high in the psychoactive compound THC, the compound that produces a high when consumed. Some marijuana strains can be as strong as 20-25% THC with a select few strains testing even higher than that. Marijuana is also usually very low in CBD. (There are a handful of high CBD marijuana strains.)
The United States federal government classifies marijuana (0.3%+ THC) as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Many states have passed legislation to legalize the cultivation and use of marijuana for medical and recreational use.
Hemp is not marijuana.
Hemp plants contain some of the same cannabinoids as marijuana including THC but in much smaller amounts. Legally grown industrial hemp must contain less than 0.3% THC. While industrial hemp is popular and commonly used as a source of CBD by many companies, it is not ideal.
The 2014 Farm Bill defines hemp as any cannabis that contains less than 0.3% THC.
PCR (phtyocannabinoid rich) hemp is a CBD rich cannabis hemp strain that is known to contain up to 10 times the amount of CBD as industrial hemp with less than 0.3% THC. PCR hemp is federally legal and does not get you high.
Bottom line: hemp is federally legal, marijuana is not. CBD products made from marijuana oil may/will get you high. CBD products made from PCR or industrial hemp oil will not.
Technically you could make a CBD product using low THC marijuana that is below the legal threshold of 0.3% THC but most companies are using hemp as their CBD source since it’s not as heavily regulated and taxed as marijuana.
Frequently Asked Questions
We’ve barely scratched the surface and it’s already getting a bit confusing. With no rules or regulations in place, CBD companies are free to operate however they see fit. The lack of regulation has led to a ton of misinformation being posted online. Some of the main points of confusion are:
Is CBD Oil Legal?
Honestly, it depends on who you ask and where you are when you ask. And as much as I hate saying that, it’s the truth.
Hemp is federally legal. CBD oil extracted from hemp that contains less than 0.3% THC is federally legal. That much we know. Everything else is totally grey depending on who you’re talking to and what state you’re operating in/shipping to.
Because CBD can be extracted from both marijuana and hemp, it’s always going to be a bit of a tricky subject. Or at least until marijuana is no longer classified as a schedule 1 narcotic.
Due to local laws, a CBD company in Texas might run into problems that a Colorado company selling the same exact CBD products doesn’t have to deal with.
And then there’s the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). The FDA has stated that we are not allowed to add CBD to food or drinks at this time and some restaurants and coffee shops throughout the US have been stopped from selling CBD infused menu items.
Best advice, keep your thumb on the pulse. Make sure to keep track of local, state, and federal laws and changes. The last thing you want is to get into trouble because you shipped CBD products to a state that has decided that CBD can only be sold in licensed marijuana dispensaries.
It’s a pain in the ass for sure but as the industry matures, rules and regulations will be established and clear operational paths will be defined.
Does CBD Oil Get You High?
No. CBD oil that is made from industrial or PCR hemp does not contain enough THC to get you high.
CBD oil made from low THC marijuana is different than CBD oil from hemp and it may or may not get you high depending on the amount of THC in the marijuana used to make the CBD oil.
In order to get high, certain receptors in your brain must be triggered. CBD does not trigger these receptors. In fact, many people think CBD does just the opposite and blocks these receptors from reacting to any THC in your system.
Some CBD companies prefer to include trace amounts of THC in their CBD products. Not enough THC to get you high but enough to trigger the “entourage effect” which we explain in detail later in the guide.
Note: I have seen instances where pet owners have used a full spectrum CBD oil (oil containing CBD and up to 0.3% THC) and have reported that their pets seemed to get high.
Will CBD Oil Cause Me To Fail a Drug Test?
This is probably the most popular question asked which is fair considering CBD comes from cannabis and cannabis can be either marijuana or hemp.
Answering this question is not as simple as yes or no. Is the drug test you are taking sophisticated enough to test for both THC and CBD? Or will the mere presence of CBD in your system trigger a false positive test result for THC?
Chances are, if you are using a hemp based CBD product and the drug test is being conducted by a professional lab you will not test positive for THC as they have the ability to tell the difference between CBD and THC. The same cannot be said for store bought drug test kits.
If you find yourself in a serious situation where a CBD product is causing you to test positive for THC immediately make an appointment with a local testing lab and have them run either a blood or urine test. If professional lab results come back and also show that you have THC in your system then you may want to look into the CBD products you are using and confirm that they are made from hemp not marijuana and do not contain more than 0.3% THC.
Does CBD Oil Have Side Effects?
The answer to this question is determined by what you consider a “side effect.” CBD is biphasic which means that the CBD oil you take might effect you differently based on the size of the dose. Also, CBD effects different people in different ways.
CBD Oil user “A” may use CBD oil as an appetite stimulant to help them increase food intake and gain weight.
CBD Oil user “B” may use CBD oil to help them regulate their metabolism in an attempt to lose weight.
A person that is trying to lose weight probably views an increased appetite as a negative side effect while on the other hand, a person trying to gain weight might see an increased appetite as a positive.
I have been selling CBD products of all types for 10+ years and I can’t remember a single person complaining about negative side effects. I think the worst thing I’ve ever heard is that someone didn’t like the flavor of raw CBD oil.
Does CBD Oil Make You Sleepy?
In normal doses, CBD oil is not known to cause drowsiness. In very high doses, CBD can cause drowsiness.
To give you an example of a “high dose” I recently smoked 10 grams (10,000mg) of pure CBD isolate in a single hour long session. After about 30 minutes and 5 grams (5000mg) I began to feel slightly drowsy. At the end of 1 hour when all the CBD was consumed I definitely felt more relaxed and a bit drowsy but nothing close to stoned or high. I ended up sleeping very well.
Is CBD Oil Safe For My Pet?
Yes, CBD oil is safe for pets and very effective when provided the correct dose. A small hamster or lizard needs much less CBD oil than a big dog or a horse. Also, your pet’s activity level can help determine dose size. An active animal with a high metabolism may need a higher dose than an animal that prefers to rest most of the day.
Animals are very sensitive to THC. Make sure that any CBD oil or CBD treats you are giving your pets is either THC free or VERY low in THC (0.1%). If your pet is suffering from a serious ailment and you feel CBD + THC is needed to create the “entourage effect” be very careful and start with a very small dose and work your way up.
Not all veterinarians are educated on the benefits of using CBD oil but, if possible, find one in your area that is and talk with them before giving your pet CBD oil or CBD treats for any reason.
Section 2 – How Is CBD Oil Made?
In Section 2 we will discuss how CBD oil is made and cover a few common industry terms.
CBD oil is made from freshly harvested cannabis plants (marijuana or hemp). Oil is extracted from these plants in a lab using one of several scientific techniques and machines. Most labs have their own “tech” for producing raw cbd oil that includes using ethanol alcohol or CO2 as a solvent to separate the CBD oil from the plant material.
In addition to CBD, other desired compounds like terpenes, THC, and other cannabinoids can be extracted as well.
After the extraction process is complete, many companies use additional processes to adjust the color, smell, purity, and flavor of their final CBD product giving them the ability to control the desired ratios of each cannabinoid and compound.
Using different extraction methods and equipment, companies have been able to create an assortment of different CBD oils and CBD products. Let’s take a look at their pros and cons.
As the CBD industry grows and matures, definitions for different types of CBD products evolve. Here are a few of the current types and their definitions:
Raw CBD Oil – Oil that is extracted from the cannabis plant (marijuana or hemp) that has not been filtered or decarboxylated.
Pro: Raw CBD oil contains the broadest variety of plant compounds including CBD, THC, vitamins, oils, and terpenes. Raw CBD oil is typically less expensive than more processed CBD oil.
Con: The concentrated natural oil of a cannabis plant is very dark in color and tastes extremely bitter and unpleasant.
Decarboxylated – CBD oil that has been heated after extraction causing the cannabinoid CBDA to convert into CBD.
Pro: Decarboxylated oils usually have a higher concentration of CBD which takes effect quicker ands lasts longer than raw CBD oil.
Con: Decarboxylating oil causes CBDA to convert to CBD. CBDA may have it’s own beneficial uses.
Full Spectrum – CBD oil that contains other compounds like terpenes and THC. Typically Full Spectrum CBD oil contains 0.3% THC.
Pro: More likely to produce the “entourage effect” and possibly more effective than a Broad Spectrum or CBD Isolate product.
Con: There is no standard determining exactly what “Full Spectrum” is. It’s possible to get a “Full Spectrum” product from one company that contains a variety of terpenes and 0.3% THC while a competing “Full Spectrum” product may contain only a fraction of the terpenes and zero THC.
Broad Spectrum – CBD oil that contains other compounds like terpenes and fatty acids but has zero THC.
Pro: It may be possible to create an “entourage effect” with CBD and other compounds excluding THC.
Con: Like Full Spectrum, there are no standards regarding Broad Spectrum CBD oil and the risks are similar.
Isolate – Isolate powder is the purest form of CBD and is made by refining the CBD until only pure CBD isolate remains.
Pro: CBD Isolate is colorless and odorless and can be used as an additive in food or drinks or consumed directly by eating, vaping or smoking. It is perfect for precise CBD dosing and for situations where other compounds are not needed.
Con: Some studies have shown that isolated CBD is less effective than it’s Broad and Full spectrum cousins due to the lack of other compounds like terpenes and THC.
Note: It’s important to mention that there are currently 2 definitions for “Broad Spectrum” CBD oil. Some people define Broad Spectrum oil as Full Spectrum oil that has had the THC removed using a scientific chromatography process. While others define Broad Spectrum oil as CBD Isolate that has been combined with individual terpenes in an oil base, usually Hempseed oil or MCT oil.
Often times these added terpenes are not sourced from cannabis but are extracted from other less-expensive plant sources. Always ask questions when purchasing Broad Spectrum CBD oil.
“Is this filtered Full Spectrum oil or infused CBD Isolate?”
CBD Isolate Powder
Section 3 – How Does CBD Oil Work?
Section 3 talks about how CBD oil effects your system, what the endocannabinod system does, and defines the “entourage effect”.
CBD oil works by interacting with receptors throughout the entire body. The CBD molecule closely resembles cannabinoids that are naturally produced in the human body which is why CBD is so effective. This system of chemicals and receptors is knows as the endocannabinoid system.
Receptors in the endocannabinoid system perform different functions depending on where they are located in your body. Endocannabinoids help with homeostasis, inflammation, and can have a beneficial impact on your overall mental wellbeing.
Having CBD receptors throughout your entire body helps CBD to beneficially impact your system in a number of different ways. Here are a few possible reasons to use CBD oil:
- Pain relief
- Anxiety reduction/relief
- Increased blood flow
- Anti inflammatory
Cannabichromene (CBC) and Cannabigerol (CBG) are additional cannabinoids that can be found in CBD oil. Both CBC and CBG are thought to have similar beneficial properties as CBD.
What Does The Endocannabinoid System Do?
The human endocannabinoid system is made up of receptors found on the surface of cells and the endocannabinoids themselves. These 2 components help regulate a wide variety of bodily functions including moods, sleep patterns, appetite, and much more that help keep your body balanced.
What Is The “Entourage Effect?”
The Entourage Effect is a synergistic effect that occurs when different compounds within a cannabis plant (THC, THCA, CBD, CBDA, CBG, etc.) interact with each other in the human body to produce a stronger effect than any one of the compounds normally produces by itself.
Different compounds can amplify each other’s chemistry, making certain CBD oils more effective. Full spectrum CBD oil can be more effective in some cases because of its high concentrations of cannabinoids and compounds that create the entourage effect in users.
Section 4 – How Much Does CBD Oil Cost?
In Section 4 we’ll discuss that average price you can expect to pay for a milligram of CBD oil.
Price is one of, if not the, most important factor consumers consider when purchasing CBD oil.
With so many variables to consider (CBD purity, volume, price) it can be difficult to figure out which CBD brand is offering the best value.
Retail consumers can expect to pay an average of .13¢ per milligram of CBD. We’ve seen seen the cost be as low as .04¢ and as high as .20¢ per mg depending on the brand.
Cost for a bottle of CBD oil at .13¢ per milligram:
CBD in MG
Section 5 – CBD Dosing
Section 5 dives into the topic of CBD oil dosing. How much is the right amount to take? Which methods are the most effective for certain conditions.
There are a handful of different ways to take CBD, each with it’s own benefits and drawbacks depending on the consumption method and ingredients as well as the bioavailability of the dosing method.
Bioavailability is defined by the percentage of any active compound (CBD) that ends up in the user’s bloodstream and is available for the body to use.
A perfect CBD product would deliver 100% bioavailability meaning all of the CBD in the product is available to the human body. Unfortunately, the only way to currently reach 100% bioavailability is through IV injection directly into the bloodstream.
Different methods of CBD oil consumption have individual ranges of bioavailability.
CBD tinctures are liquid/oil that has been infused with CBD oil. Tinctures are usually taken under the tongue (sublingually) which allows the CBD to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream via the veins in your mouth.
On average the bioavailability of CBD in tinctures is around 25-35%.
Second only to IV injection, inhaling CBD provides the highest bioavailability. With levels reaching as high as 60%, inhaling CBD not only provides a large amount of bioavailability but the effects hit you almost immediately.
How Long Do The Effects Take To Hit Me?
Determining CBD oil onset time depends on a couple key factors.
- The person taking the CBD oil.
- The CBD oil being used.
No two people are genetically the same which means no two people are going to react to an identical dose of CBD oil the same way. Age, weight, health, and metabolism can all effect CBD onset time.
A person with an abundance of cannabinoid receptors may be more sensitive to CBD effects than someone with fewer receptors.
The type, strength, and freshness of the CBD product being used also all have an effect on onset time. The onset time for tinctures may be longer than the onset time for a CBD vape.
As a general guideline you can expect to feel the effects from a normal size CBD dose in 20-45 minutes.
Ideal Dose Size?
The perfect CBD dose size varies per individual. Like onset time, dose size depends on the person taking the CBD and the product they are using.
You will find that most CBD products have a recommended dose size on the label. Without taking into account the different variables it’s almost impossible for their recommendation to be correct. How do they know how much I weigh? How do they know how many cannabinoid receptors I have?
Depending on the person, the serving size of a particular product might be different than serving size of a similar product that is the same size due to the 2 products containing different amounts of CBD.
Often times serving size is determined by the reason someone is taking CBD oil. Someone who is taking CBD to support general health and wellness might take less than someone who is taking CBD oil to help with a serious condition.
Taking all of the necessary factors into consideration your ideal dose size might take some fine tuning. Talking too little CBD oil will not produce the desired effect while taking too much CBD oil may be a waste of money without providing any more additional benefits than a normal dose.
Be consistent with your CBD product type, serving size, and dose timing. Switching between products, different dose amounts or taking CBD oil at different times every day may prevent you from being able to accurately gauge the effects.
Start with a low dose and work your way up. This will give you time to gauge your body’s reaction to the CBD oil. Many experts have recommended starting with 1mg of CBD for every 20 pounds of body weight daily. 100 pounds = 5mg daily. 200 pounds = 10mg daily.
Take a few days to note your reaction to your first few doses and if needed, increase or decrease the amount of CBD being consumed.
Can I Take Too Much CBD Oil?
No. CBD is well tolerated by humans and is 100% non-toxic. There is no known record of anyone ever overdosing on CBD or suffering an adverse reaction to too much CBD.
It is possible to take more CBD than intended resulting in the user feeling too calm or too relaxed for a specific situation, at work for example.
In 2019 we are going to see a huge number of new companies launching hundreds of CBD products. Some are going to be better and more effective than others but one thing is for sure, there will be a lot.
Everything from CBD infused sugar, coffee, popcorn, jelly beans, and just about everything else you can think of.
CBD oil and the products made from it are popular for one main reason, they work. More than ever the CBD consumer is going to have an endless selection of products to choose from.
Here are a few things to keep in mind when buying CBD oil in 2019:
- Where does the company’s hemp come from?
- Are their products made from CBD isolate or full spectrum oil?
- How are they extracting their CBD or are they white labeling?
- What other ingredients are being added?
- Are their products lab tested and do they post their results online?
If you have any questions about any of the information in this guide or any questions about CBD oil feel free to shoot me an email anytime. Cheers!
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